African maroon resistance at Hispaniola heavily challenged European conquest


Map of Hispaniola by Paolo di Forlani (1564). Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University.

African resistance strongly shaped Spanish Hispaniola of the 1500s— now the island home to Haiti and the Dominican Republic—but historians have often considered that resistance to be a byproduct of Spanish colonialism and its reliance on slavery, according to a University of Kansas historian who studies the development of race in Latin America.


However, in a new study, Robert Schwaller, KU associate professor history, argues that Spanish colonial records reveal that…

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